Sweet potato or in a scientific language named Ipomoea batatas L., is one type of cultivation plant because the way of how to plant potatoes is relatively easy. The part that is often used from sweet potatoes is the roots that form tubers with high nutrient and carbohydrate content.
In African countries, sweet potatoes have become one of the most crucial staple food sources. In the Asian state, aside from being used on its tubers, young leaves from sweet potatoes can also be made of vegetables.
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Sweet Potatoes Plant
Sweet potato thought to originate from the Americas. Agricultural experts in Botani estimate that the primary areas of sweet potato plants are in New Zealand, Polynesia, and central America. Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov, a Soviet botanist, has confirmed that the primary center of sweet potato origin is Central America.
Sweet potato has spread to the world, especially in countries that have tropical climates around the 16th century, because sweet potato cultivation is suitable to be carried out in hot and humid tropics. The ideal temperature for this plant is 21-27oC with rainfall 750-1500 mm per year. Sweet potato cultivation requires solar radiation about 11-12 hours a day.
Cylas beetles are the wariest of pests in sweet potato plants throughout the world, especially in regions with dry climates. In other words, Cylas beetles are the most critical pest in sweet potatoes. By emphasizing the prevention of threats and attacks from the Cylas beetle is the most productive crop protection measures.
There are three types of sweet potatoes. These types are popularly cultivated namely white-brown, red and purple sweet potatoes. The three types of sweet potatoes have superior varieties with high productivity. Sweet potato is beneficial for human health, including in curing cancer, boosting immunity, launching digestion, treating diabetes, and lowering blood pressure.
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How to Plant Potatoes
Applying how to plant potatoes is suitable if you do it in an area that has a hot and humid tropical climate. The ideal temperature for this sweet potato plant is 21-27oC with a rainfall rate of 750-1500 mm per year. To implement this method of planting sweet potatoes requires solar radiation around 11-12 hours a day.
Sweet potato cultivation has reached its most optimal productivity when planted in low-lying areas up to 500 meters above the sea level. However, this plant can still grow well at an altitude of about above 1000 meters, only in the period of planting until the harvest will be longer.
1. Preparation of Sweet Potato Seeds
The preparation of seeds to apply how to plant potatoes can be done in two ways, namely by generative and vegetative.
First of all, you have to do is to propagate through sweet potatoes. The trick is to choose a good quality and healthy yam, then leave the yam in a moist and shady place until the shoots come out. Buds that have come out of the tuber are then cut and ready for you to enlarge.
The second way is by vegetative propagation by way of checking. You can take prospective broodstock from plants that are older than two months with short segments. The trick, cut the stems of plants to approximately 15-25 cm. Every piece there are at least two segments on the stem.
You should cut some of the leaves to reduce the occurrence of evaporation. Then tie the stem that you have checked and leave it for one week in the shade. Propagation by stem cuttings method continuously can reduce plant quality. Therefore, propagation by cuttings can only be recommended for 3 to 5 generations of planting.
2. Soil Processing for Sweet Potato Cultivation
Before you do an excellent way to plant sweet potatoes, the soil that you will use must be plowed or plowed first so that the soil is loose. Then make beds with a height of 30-40 cm, width of the beds 60-100 cm with a distance between the beds 40-60 cm that aims to prevent excess water from the land.
For how to grow sweet potatoes organically, you can provide essential fertilizer in the form of manure or compost. Superior manure is a mixture of cooked chicken and cow or goat manure. Mix the fertilizer when making beds at a rate of 20 tons per hectare.
3. Sweet Potato Planting
You can plant sweet potatoes by immersing 2/3 cuttings into the soil. In one bed there are only two rows of plants. The distance between plants with each other in a row is approximately 30 cm, and the distance between rows is 40 cm.
At the beginning of the growth of sweet potatoes, you have to keep the moisture from the soil as a growing medium. Do watering every morning and evening on the cuttings that you just planted. You can stop watering after the plant is seen growing, which can be seen by the release of new leaves.
4. Harvesting of sweet potato cultivation
Harvesting on sweet potatoes can be done at the age of 3.5 to 4 months. Also, pay attention to the weather before harvest and also make sure the age of the plants to be harvested over 3 months. Tubers are ready to harvest and then suddenly hit by heavy rain usually these tubers will rot.
Harvesting will be said to be successful if each seedling that you have planted produces at least 1 kg of tubers. In general, good sweet potatoes that are not attacked by pests will usually produce tubers of more than 25 tons per hectare.
Even on certain types of sweet potatoes can produce up to 30 to 40 tons per hectare. After the harvest, the sweet potatoes are washed and sorted then put into sacks and stored in a dry place before you sell it to the market.
So that was a little article about the cultivation of sweet potatoes correctly and adequately. Hopefully, with this article, you can know how the stages or procedures you have to take in applying how to plant potatoes.
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